Confederate Equipment Regs
Our base impression is mid to late War, so our Confederate Uniform Regulations are based on the Chickamauga National Military Park Living History Guidelines by Mr. Ogden and Mr. Lee White.
The initial investment can range between $1,000.00 to $1,500.00, but we try to help new recruits along if necessary.
Before going out and buying your uniform and equipment you should speak to our authenticty officer and some of the other veterans first. This can save you money. Cheap isn't always a good thing when you end up unsatisfied and wanting to replace what you have already purchased for more authentic equipment.
Each member is required to obtain complete uniforms, Union and Confederate, before their first Max effort.
Material: Wool weft, cotton warp jean weave material predominated as the cloth for the production of jackets, trousers, caps, and vests. Other acceptable, but less commonly used materials were wool weft, wool warp jeans weave cloth, satinets, cassimeres, casinets, kerseys, and all cotton jean weave material. Grey, grey/brown, and brown were the most common colors. Limited use of kerseys, mostly in grey, cadet grey, blue grey, are also acceptable, but mostly for officers' uniforms and Eastern Theater jackets. Osnaburg and muslinin white were the most common linings. These same materials were used for shirts and drawers. Woven stripes and checks, some prints (such as table cloth and curtain material), and solid colors were used for shirts. Wool and cotton flannels were also used for some shirts and drawers.
Construction: Hand sewing was the most common. Machine sewing was occasionally seen in lighter garments such as shirts and drawers, as well as for parts of other garments (linings, etc). However since sewing machines had been purchased widely even in the South, some uniforms were entirely or largely machine sewn. ALL BUTTONHOLES WERE HAND STITCHED. Living History clothing should show hand sewn button holes and ideally hand stitched where visible and also follow the pattern of a period piece which were less baggy and bulky than modern pieces.
A. Columbus (Atlanta) Depot Pattern Shell Jacket. Arguably the most common issued Western Theater Depot pattern. Note these jackets should reflect the correct pattern with low cut collar, 6 piece bodies, 2 piece sleeves, and 5 to 7 button fronts.
B. Mobile Depot Pattern Shell Jacket (no Trim, outer slash pocket)
A. Department of Alabama Depot Jacket (outer slash pocket, blue jean collar)
B. Enlisted Man's Frock Coat (Georgia State Issue or from home item)
C. Commutation Style Jacket of a documented pattern
A. Civilian Sack or Frock Coat
B. Vicksburg Jacket
C. Military Sack Coats of an identified Confederate used pattern
Buttons - Wooden dished, Brass Block I, local produced, and Union coat buttons. State button use should be limited.
Trousers should reflect a period pattern with small or no waistbands, buckle backs, and narrow flys.
1. Military Issue
2. Civilian Pattern
Suspenders/Braces of civilian pattern, cotton webbing, canvas, or ticking with either button holes or tips with tin or brass buckels (no nickel plated metal)
Documented civilian or Confederate Military pattern in wool or cotton flannel, woven checks or stripes, prints (limited), osnaburg, muslin, or tapestry (limited).
Military or civilian style in cotton or wool flannel if worn.
1. A wide brimmed, generally dark colored wool felt civilian hat.
2. Cap, jean, satinet, cassimere, casinet material, infantry trim may be worn. No baseball creases on bill.
3. Hardee hat with little or no trim
4. A. Straw/plant fiber hats of a period style and weave (no modern "Amish" styles)
B. Quilted fabric hat
5. Civilian or mechanic's style wheel hat.
Hats should have the appropiate sweatband, lining, ribbon, and stitching. Trim and insignia should be limited. Confederate style forage caps are discouraged and Union forage caps are not allowed. Also hats should be worn in a period manner with rolled or turned up brims. Caps should not have a modern baseball creased bill
A. CS copy of the Jefferson Brogan
B. English Imported Shoes
C. CS cotton fabric shoes
D. Other CS pattern shoes
E. Civilian pattern shoes
A. US military brogans
B. Military boots
C. Civilian boots
Socks: wool or cotton shoes in white, a basic color, or natural color, hand knitted are best.
A. Civilian style, 100% wool, woven blankets in natural or earth tone colors.
C. Wool ingrain carpet
D. British import
2. Union issue blanket
3. Jean fabric blanket
Oil cloth, painted canvas, or caprtured federal issue gum blanket.
Each soldier should carry a tin cup, fork and spoon and tin plate. More extensive cooking items such as period individual frying pans (even improvised ones from old canteens) are not neccessary and should be very limited. Cooking during the Campaign for Chattanooga was done in messes (four or five to fifteen men) sharing the cooking duties and using large cooking utensils such as kettles, frying pans, coffee pots, dutch ovens, water buckets, axes, etc. These large items were carried in regimental baggage wagons which accompanied the troops except in the presence of the enemy. They were often packed in wooden boxes serving as mess chests. When te soldiers were issued rations (normally in three to five day increments), the baggage wagons with the cooking utensils weren't present except on rare occassions. In some units, the soldiers assigned to the wagon trains did the cooking and the rations were delivered cooked to the troops in the ranks. This practice became standardized during the Atlanta Campaign. Tables, chairs, and stools were not provided for soldiers or even company officers and no transportation allowance was alloted to them. They should not be present in Living History camps. Ammunition packing boxes were accountable property and hence, would not be around camp in the hands of enlisted men. A company desk for the company books, order books, and other papers will be allowed.
The Army of Tennessee had little tentage during the campaign for Chattanooga. Due to a lack of transportation, most of it had been left in Middle Tennessee around Tullahoma at the end of June, 1863. A large fly or two for enlisted men (at the rate of six flies to every 100 men) or a common tent for company officers would be a possibility if the baggage wagons were available. Sleeping under the stars was the most common; blankets, gum blankets, and brush bedding. The use of Federal shelter tents is inappropiate. If tentage is needed, a fly will be provided for the living history camp. If other tents are required for personal comfort, their use will only be allowed in a non-public area.
By the time of the campaign for Chattanooga in 1863, flags were strictly carried on the battalion and regimental level. They should not be used unless more than three companies are united as a battalion and then that flag should be one of the typical Army of Tennessee patterns, i.e. one of the over nine different patterns known to have been carried by the Confederates in the campaign. However, if as an adjunct to the living history program, it is desired to do a specific program on the different patterns of flags seen in this campaign, that would be considered.
Ordnance and Ordnance Stores
Note: The Enfield is the preferred Arm.
A. Enfield Rifled Muske, .577
B. M1861 Springfield Rifled Musket, .58
C. M1855 Springfield Rifled Musket, .58
D. Smoothbore Muskets, M1842, 1822
B. Austrian Lorenz
D. Belgian Smoothbore Musket
3. Rifled Musket
Side arms are only allowable for officers only.
Appropriate bayonet for weapon carried. However, not every soldier must have a bayonet, as few as one fourth or one third of the men need have them.
1. M1855/61 leather box and tins with cotton webbing sling or leather sling.
A. Painted cloth cartridge box with tins
B. Documneted Confederate manufactured pattern
3. Enfield box with tins
4. Boc for .69 weapon and tins
A. M1845/50 pattern
B. painted cloth pattern
C. documented Confederate manufactured pattern
2. Enfield pattern
Rectangle CSA Clipped Corner CS, frame buckles, and roller buckles were most common. Snake buckles are acceptable. Some state, militia, and civilian buckles can also be used in limited numbers. All waist belt plates are to have proper period construction. Use of an upside down US should be extremely limited. Waist belt should be black, russet or buff leather or painted canvas and appropriate to the buckle (painted cloth tend to have clip corner CS or roller buckles).
Made of leather or painted cloth and appropriate for the weapon and bayonetbeing carried.
A. Mexican War or Confederate Copy
B. Documented Confederate pattern
A. Double bag pattern
B. Federal double pattern
A. British pattern
B. Other common period pattern
Two thirds or more of the men should carry knapsacks.
A. tin drum
B. wood drum (Gardner), usually of cedar
2. Federal pattern - smoothside only
3. Other common period pattern (Nuckols pattern, etc)
Straps should be cotton, cotton webbing, or leather sewn together with a buckle or button.
As few as two thirds or one-half of the men need to carry canteens.
1. white cotton duck and osnaburg unpainted
2. black painted CS pattern
3. cotton jean weave unpainted pattern
4. Federal pattern
As few as two-thirds or one-half of the men need to carry haversacks
Since most of the Army of Tennessee's soldiers had little contact with the enemy for about nine months, only durable items would be appropriate. Only Federal style canteens, blankets, knapsacks, haversacks, Hardee hats, gum blankets, accoutrements, and weapons should be used. Federal sky blue enlisted man's foot trousers would have been extremely rare if seen at all. Jefferson brogan pattern shoes are acceptable.
Spectacles (what we call glasses today) were not a common item amongst Civil War soldiers or even civilians of that era. Hence, try to get by without glasses if you can while doing Living History or contact lenses. If you must wear glasses, visit antique stores and purchase a 19th century pair and have the lenses replaced with one of your prescription, preferably with safety lenses. No modern glasses may be worn at anytime as part of a Living History program.
Non Comissioned officers were important to the functioning of the line of battle in combat. The ratio of sergeants to privates was about one to seven or eight and the ratio for the corporals was about one to nine. Living History companies should be equipped the same as privates. Chevrons are not neccesary and their use should be limited. The stripes should be hard sewn directly to the jacket with no backing. Non Commissioned officers should know the drill and duties expected of them.
Individual items of civilian attire are acceptable as identified above. The presence, through, of a recent recruit in the ranks entirely in civilian attire would occasionally possible. Usually in small numbers, Confederate units saw recruits sent to their ranks by the efforts of conscript officers, provost marshalls, and pure volunteerism. Most new men were uniformed in about a month after joining the unit, but in a period of active campaigning, some time could pass before the usual military clothing could be issued. A Living History unit should have no more than two men in largely civilian attire. By the summer of 1863, the Quartermaster's Department was meeting the basic clothing needs of almost all of the Army of Tennessee's soldiers. Hence, use of civilian coats or jackets and pants would have been limited. A Living History unit should reflect this.
Not every soldier was to have every possible personal effect. However, having at least a few of these little items helps complete and enrich the impression. In choosing personal effects, remember that you will have to carry them.
Vests, civilian or military pattern
Playing cards, correct styles on non laminated paper
Various games (Pocket chess sets, cribbage board)
Novels, books, or newspapers
In addition to having the appropriate Living History equipment and material, it must be used and worn correctly. Pants and waist belts were worn at the real waist (i.e. the naval) and not at the hips, clothes were not form fitting. Haversack and canteen straps and cartridge box belts were adjusted so that those items did not slap the soldier on the back of the legs or buttocks on the march. Haversacks carried food and individual mess equipment and not personal items, personal items were carried in pockets and knapsacks. Hats and jackets were worn whenever in public, pants were rarely tucked in socks. By adopting the appropriate 19th century use and appearance, the Living History impression is remarkably improved.
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